Forklift Starters - The starter motor of today is normally either a series-parallel wound direct current electric motor which has a starter solenoid, which is similar to a relay mounted on it, or it can be a permanent-magnet composition. When current from the starting battery is applied to the solenoid, basically through a key-operated switch, the solenoid engages a lever that pushes out the drive pinion that is situated on the driveshaft and meshes the pinion with the starter ring gear that is seen on the flywheel of the engine.
The solenoid closes the high-current contacts for the starter motor, which starts to turn. When the engine starts, the key operated switch is opened and a spring in the solenoid assembly pulls the pinion gear away from the ring gear. This particular action causes the starter motor to stop. The starter's pinion is clutched to its driveshaft by means of an overrunning clutch. This allows the pinion to transmit drive in only a single direction. Drive is transmitted in this particular manner through the pinion to the flywheel ring gear. The pinion continuous to be engaged, for instance for the reason that the driver fails to release the key when the engine starts or if the solenoid remains engaged as there is a short. This actually causes the pinion to spin independently of its driveshaft.
This aforementioned action prevents the engine from driving the starter. This is actually an important step as this kind of back drive would enable the starter to spin really fast that it will fly apart. Unless adjustments were made, the sprag clutch arrangement will prevent the use of the starter as a generator if it was employed in the hybrid scheme discussed earlier. Normally a regular starter motor is designed for intermittent use that would preclude it being used as a generator.
The electrical components are made to function for roughly 30 seconds so as to avoid overheating. Overheating is caused by a slow dissipation of heat is because of ohmic losses. The electrical parts are intended to save cost and weight. This is actually the reason the majority of owner's guidebooks intended for automobiles recommend the operator to pause for a minimum of ten seconds right after each ten or fifteen seconds of cranking the engine, if trying to start an engine that does not turn over right away.
The overrunning-clutch pinion was launched onto the marked in the early part of the 1960's. Previous to the 1960's, a Bendix drive was used. This particular drive system works on a helically cut driveshaft that has a starter drive pinion placed on it. When the starter motor starts turning, the inertia of the drive pinion assembly enables it to ride forward on the helix, thus engaging with the ring gear. Once the engine starts, the backdrive caused from the ring gear enables the pinion to exceed the rotating speed of the starter. At this instant, the drive pinion is forced back down the helical shaft and hence out of mesh with the ring gear.
In the 1930s, an intermediate development between the Bendix drive was developed. The overrunning-clutch design that was made and introduced in the 1960s was the Bendix Folo-Thru drive. The Folo-Thru drive has a latching mechanism along with a set of flyweights inside the body of the drive unit. This was an enhancement since the typical Bendix drive used to be able to disengage from the ring as soon as the engine fired, although it did not stay functioning.
The drive unit if force forward by inertia on the helical shaft once the starter motor is engaged and begins turning. After that the starter motor becomes latched into the engaged position. Once the drive unit is spun at a speed higher than what is attained by the starter motor itself, like for instance it is backdriven by the running engine, and next the flyweights pull outward in a radial manner. This releases the latch and allows the overdriven drive unit to become spun out of engagement, thus unwanted starter disengagement can be prevented previous to a successful engine start.
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